What is the basic principle of transformer? 1 article accurate make it clear!

Preface

Transformer is one of the very important equipment in power transmission and distribution system. In modern society, we use electrical equipment of various voltages almost all the time, and transformers are responsible for transmitting electrical energy from one voltage level to another.

The basic principle of transformer is to realize the conversion of electrical energy through the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. However, transformer maintenance is also required to prevent accidents.

Electromagnetic Induction Theory

Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction

Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction is the basis of electromagnetic induction theory, which explains the principle of electromagnetic induction phenomenon. According to Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction, when the magnetic flux in a conductor loop changes, an induced electromotive force will be generated in the loop. The magnitude of this electromotive force is proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux.

Mutual Inductance Law

The law of mutual inductance is the core of the principle of transformer. The law of mutual inductance states that when a magnetic field is shared between two coils (primary coil and secondary coil), changes in current in the primary coil will cause an electromotive force in the secondary coil. The primary coil is supplied from the power source and the secondary coil is what the load is connected to.

Principle of transformer

Transformer structure

Disassemble the transformer and you will find that the transformer consists of two coils and an iron core. The coil is divided into a main coil and a secondary coil, which are wound on two different parts of the iron core. The iron core concentrates the magnetic field between the coils in order to increase the magnetic flux.

Understanding the principle of transformer is essential in electrical engineering
Understanding the principle of transformer is essential in electrical engineering

Working principle

The principle of transformer is that when the transformer is working, the current in the main coil generates a magnetic field in the iron core, and the magnetic field passes through the secondary coil and induces an electromotive force on it. According to the law of mutual inductance, the electromotive force in the secondary coil is proportional to the change in current in the primary coil. By selecting different coil turns ratios, efficient conversion between input and output voltages can be achieved.

Ideal transformer

An ideal transformer is based on the assumption of ideal conditions, including no losses, no coil resistance and no flux leakage. In an ideal transformer, the input power equals the output power. This is because the electromotive force in the secondary coil adjusts the voltage according to the turns ratio of the coil, so the conversion of electrical energy can be achieved through the transformer.

Applications of transformers

Power transmission and distribution systems

Transformers are widely used in power transmission and distribution systems. By using transformers, power companies can transmit the high voltage produced by power plants to the low voltage in consumers’ homes. This kind of electrical energy conversion not only saves costs, but also improves the efficiency of energy transmission.

Electronic equipment

Due to the principle of transformer, transformers are also widely used in household electronic equipment, such as TVs, computers and mobile phone chargers. Transformers can convert the high voltage of the mains into a low voltage suitable for electronic equipment to protect the equipment from damage. But at the same time don’t forget about the maintenance of electronic equipment.

Industrial equipment

In industrial production processes, transformers are used to control the speed and output power of electric motors. By adjusting the input voltage, precise control of the motor can be achieved to meet different needs.

Summary

The principle of transformer is to use the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction to achieve electrical energy conversion. Transformers are indispensable equipment in power transmission and distribution systems, and their applications cover various fields. By in-depth understanding of the principles and applications of transformers, we can better utilize electrical energy and improve energy utilization efficiency.

The principle of transformer relies on electromagnetic induction
The principle of transformer relies on electromagnetic induction